Professor Richard Bright (1789–1858) – the founder of clinical nephrology and a prominent scientist (on the 230th anniversary of his birth)


T.Sh. Morgoshiya, G.P. Sergeeva, A.M. Ryzhova

St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
The main milestones of the scientific and practical activity of Richard Bright (1789-1858) are considered. Little-known facts from the life of an English scientist and clinician are discussed. The scientific views and thoughts of the scientist are presented in detail. The article noted that in 1813 he defended his doctoral thesis "On a contagious erysipelas." He improved his knowledge in Cambridge, then in London, in various clinics in Vienna. Since 1820, he was a doctor at Guy’s Hospital in London for 30 years, giving a course of clinical lectures. It is shown that R. Bright made a major contribution to the study of internal diseases, especially kidney diseases, and is rightfully considered the founder of the scientific study of renal pathology. The fact that he identified the morphological forms of the main renal diseases – large white kidney, an enlarged or normal size irregular kidney, an, a small granular kidney – is analyzed. For the first time he described the clinical picture and the morphology of nephritis, indicated the causes for its development, created the principles of its treatment and prevention. It has been noted that bilateral inflammatory and dystrophic processes in the kidneys (nephritis, nephrosis) have been called Bright's disease for many decades. However, the term "Bright's disease" is a collective concept (differentiation of various forms of kidney diseases is necessary), therefore it is practically not used at present time. Meanwhile, it was shown that R. Bright was also engaged in natural history, geology, and taught botany.
Keywords: R. Bright, biography, nephrology, nephritis, nephrosis, Bright’s disease, Guy’s hospital

About the Autors

Morgoshiya T.Sh. – PhD in Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, Prof. A.A. Rusanov Department of Faculty Surgery, SPbSPMU; Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
E-mail: 0000-0003-3838-177X
Sergeeva G.P. – Student of SRS for in Surgery, SPbSPMU; Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Ryzhova A.M. – Student of SRS for in Surgery, SPbSPMU; Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

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